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## Sunday, July 10, 2016

### How to calculate your GPA and CGPA in Nigerian Universities

Written by: Muoka Chibuzor
last reviewed and updated on April 6th 2018.

1.    Define GPA and CGPA.
2.    Understand the Principles guiding them.
3.    State how to calculate the both of them.
4.    Know what happens to your GPA and CGPA, when you fail a
course or have a missing script.

GPA and CGPA

The GPA and CGPA are both a measure of a student’s academic achievement at a College or University.

The GPA stands for Grade Point Average – a method of computing a numerical value for letter grades received in school by assigning each a numeric value and averaging the numbers. Mostly one can know his or her GPA per semester.
If you will be able to keep a record of your GPA every semester, you will discover if you are progressing or not.... do not relax and say when i get to Final Year, i will calculate all of them. its dangerous!
The CGPA stands for Cumulative Grade Point Average – it is gotten when all the GPAs for every semester is brought together and divided at once to get a final result called the CGPA, and it portrays what one has graduated with. Be if First class, Second class, Third class or Pass.

What you must bear in mind

1.    You must know that a session is made up of two semesters. Usually termed the First and Second semester. Somebody studying a 4-year course, has 4 sessions. Also, somebody studying a 6-year course has 6 sessions. Literally, a session refers to a year.

2.    Every semester has a workload, meaning that all your courses for each semester has a unit and when they are added together we have the total unit for that semester, which we refer to as the workload for that semester.

Example.
Ada's courses for first-year first semester.
First Semester 2011/2012
·       Bio101---------------------3 unit
·       Bio103---------------------1 unit
·       Mat101--------------------3 unit
·       Gst101---------------------2 unit
·       Gst107---------------------2 unit
How many Courses = 5 courses
Total number of units {3+1+3+2+2} = 11 unit (workload)

3.    You must know the Grading system
Meaning that you must know what you have earned when you have ABCDor in a course when the results were released.

In most Nigerian Universities, the grading system is as stated below:
A – 70% and above
B – 60% to 69%
C – 50% to 59%
D – 45% to 49%
E – 40% to 44%
– 0% to 39%

4.    You must know how many points each of the grading alphabet worths.
A = 5 points
B = 4 points
C = 3 points
D = 2 points
E = 1 point
F = 0 point

5.    You must know how to multiply the Course unit {workload} with the School grading system.

Example:
Ada studied 3 courses = Biology, English and Public Health. With the course codes - BIO 101, GST 101 and GST 107 respectively, and the course unit is 3, 2 and 2 respectively.

After the exam, she had an A in BIO 101 Biology.
•        Bio101---------------------3 unit
For her to know her stand in BIO 101, she has to multiply 5 with course unit.
A (5) x 3unit = 15 points
If you have an A multiply with 5

After the exam, she had a B in GST 101 English.
•        Gst101---------------------2 unit
For her to know her stand in GST 101, she has to multiply 4 with course unit.
B (4) x 2unit = 8 points
If you have a B multiply by 4

After the exam, she had a in GST 107 Public Health.
•        Gst107---------------------2 unit
For her to know her stand in GST 107, she has to multiply 3 with course unit.
C (3) x 2unit = 6 points
If you have a C multiply by 3
Remember how many points each of the grading alphabet worths.

6.    You must know the Classifications of Degree in Various Nigerian Universities. This would help you know what you have achieved for the semester or what you are graduating with….
First Class Division = 4.5 – 5.0
Second Class Upper Division = 3.5 – 4.49
Second Class Lower Division = 2.5 – 3.49
Third Class Division = 1.5 – 2.49
Pass = 0.5 – 1.49

If you know all that it’s now easy to calculate your GPA and CPGA

Example
• Ada studied 6 courses in her final year second semester and she wants to know her GPA for that semester.

First Ada tabulates out her results as stated below,

SECOND SEMESTER 2014/2015

NEXT, MULTIPLY THE UNIT AND GRADE

NEXT DIVIDE THE GRADE POINT TOTAL WITH THE UNIT TOTAL

Unit total = 17

The GPA 4.7 falls into the First class Classification of Degree, she had the first class that second semester.

The CGPA can only be calculated when you have seen all your results for the course you studied. If you studied a 4-year course, then you must have seen all your results for that past 4 years. You should not have any result missing, because the CGPA determines the Classification of Degree you are graduating with.

You must do the following before you get your CGPA.
1.    Sum all your Units {Workloads} for the whole years you spent at the Tertiary Institution.
2.    Sum all your Grade points for the whole years you spent at the Tertiary Institution.
3.    Divide the Sum total of your Grade Points with the Sum total of all the Units {Workloads}

Example
Ada spent 4 years at the University, studying Biochemistry.

First, she sums up all her workload for the 4 years she spent,
1.    The Total Units in her First-year 1st semester is 23 units
2.    The Total Units in her First-year 2nd semester is 23 units
3.    The Total Units in her Second-year 1st semester is 22 units
4.    The Total Units in her Second-year 2nd semester is 20 units
5.    The Total Units in her Third-year 1st semester is 30 units
6.    The Total Units in her Third-year 2nd semester is 15 units
7.    The Total Units in her Fourth-year 1st semester is 20 units
8.    The Total Units in her Fourth-year 2nd semester is 17 units

Sum total of all the Units is,
23 + 23 + 22+ 20 + 30 + 15 + 20 + 17 = 170 units
Therefore, her workload for her 4 years at school is 170 units.

Secondly, she sums up all her Grade point total for the 4 years she spent,
1.    The Grade Point total in her First year 1st semester = 70
2.    The Grade Point total in her First-year 2nd semester is = 74
3.    The Grade Point total in her Second-year 1st semester is = 75
4.    The Grade Point total in her Second-year 2nd semester is = 80
5.    The Grade Point total in her Third-year 1st semester is = 112
6.    The Grade Point total in her Third-year 2nd semester is = 75
7.    The Grade Point total in her Fourth-year 1st semester is = 86
8.    The Grade Point total in her Fourth-year 2nd semester is = 80

Sum total of all the Grade point total is,
70 + 74 + 75 + 80 + 112 + 75 + 86 + 80 = 652
Therefore, her Grade Point Total for her 4 years at school is 652 points.

Thirdly, she divides the Total Grade points with the Total units.

Total Unit = 170

The CGPA 3.83 falls into the Second Class Upper Division Classification of Degree.

What happens when you have a Carryover or Missing Script?

If you have a missing script, it means your script was not found during the marking of the exam scripts.
If you complain immediately to necessary authorities, you might be reconsidered to re-sit for the exam and it won’t be counted as a carryover.

If you do not complain, to necessary authorities to be pardoned, that course is automatically counted as carryover.
If you have a carryover, it means you failed the course and you have zero grade point for that course.

The effect of a carryover is this
Do not think that when you fail a course, the unit of that course will be removed. The Unit of the course remains in your record of workload because it would be assumed that you were taught but you decided to fail. This increases your workload.
And the University will not allow you to graduate if you fail to pass all your courses.

A very low-grade point gives rise to a poor result. Thus, your grade points should be high so that when you divide with the total units, you have a good GPA or CGPA.

Avoid Carryovers… its Dangerous

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1. 2. Just equate A = 4, B = 3, C = 2, D = 1, F =0. Make SURE you include any D's or F's, that means, if you have an F, you must include the ZERO. For every grade you have translate it. Then just take the average and you will have your GPA. All D's and F's must be included in your total number of grades.

Your total GPA is calculated by:

Sum(each class grade * that class's # units)/(sum of all class units)

where the grades are: A+ = A = 4.0; A- = 3.7; B+ = 3.3, B = 3, etc.

For example, if you took two 4-unit classes, and got a B and an A in them, your GPA would be:

(3*4 + 4*4)/(4+4) = (12 + 16)/(8) = 3.5 GPA

You need to find out all your grades in all your classes, then find out the units for each one, and use the above formula to compute your GPA.

3. Thanks but still need help

4. Yes, colleges have their own system for evaluating your GPA. Some will recalculate it using their own scale; others will look at it just the way it is. The important thing to remember is that colleges don't just look at your GPA by itself; they look at your ENTIRE TRANSCRIPT as a whole: the classes you've taken, the grades you've received, your class rank, etc. Visit this link: calculator-online.net

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